- It is equipment utilize to carry goods or store goods.
- The ISO has defined container as an article of transport
- Of a permanent charter & accordingly strong enough for repeated use.
- Especially, designed to facilitate the carriage of goods by one or more mode of transportation without immediate reloading
- Fitted with devices, permitting its ready handling
- So designed as to be as easily filled, refilled & empty.
- Containers are mainly made from steel & aluminum GRP (Glass Reinforced Plywood)
- More than 70% of containers are made up of steel.
Advantages of containerization
- They are cheap in price.
- They can be more easily repaired, compared to aluminum GRP containers
- They can resist damage.
- Cost due to loss or damage of goods is reduced.
- Lower labor cost due to automated material handling equipment
- Lower warehousing & transportation cost, since containers are easily stored & transported.
- Containers can also be used for temporary storage at ports with limited warehousing facility.
- They are secured & considerably reduce the risk of theft
- Reduction in packing cost
- Reduction in marine insurance premium
- Retention of the original quality of goods.
- Faster and reliable delivery
- Physical separation from dirty cargo.
Disadvantage of containerization
- They have a small economic life as compared to aluminum & GRP about 10 years.
- They have more tare weight thus carry less pay load.
- They suffer from corrosion
- They required sophisticated handling techniques.
- Lack of facility at donors & other suppliers premises
Classification of containers in terms of their measurement
- ISO has classified standardization of containers in multiple of 10 ft. i.e. 10 ft., 20 ft., 30 ft., 40 ft. etc.
- Predominantly 20 ft. & 40 ft. containers are mostly used around the world.
- 65% of world fleet consists of 20 ft. containers.
- 20 ft. containers are referred to as Twenty Feet Equivalent Unit or TEU.
- This is commonly used term all over the world
- It becomes easier for container terminal operator (CTO) & ship owner to estimate the space required in a container.
- Most of the containers have a width of 8 ft., but in height, containers vary from 8 ft. to 8-1/2 ft.
- Presently, 75% of the containers have the height of 8-1/2 ft.
- The inside volume of the containers of size 20 ft. (8 ft.*8-1/2 ft.) is about 35 cubic meter.