1. Export
    1. Packaging: When your goods are ready to export, take care to pack them carefully, but the package is sufficiently strong enough to withstand its normal handling in transit and to protect its contents till the package reaches its destination. Packing can be done in cases, crates, bags, etc. according to the customs of the trade. Shipping freight is normally charged on weight. While packing the goods following considerations may help in minimizing the cost:
      1. In respect of measurement cargo, the package should be of minimum dimension.
      2. There must be optimum utilization of space within the package
  • Goods attracting different freight rates should not be packed together in one package, as the carrier will be charging freight on the whole package at the highest rate applicable on the goods involved.
  1. Marking: Mark your package in durable ink or paint in bold letters (In capital letters preferably) to present your buyer’s name and port of destination. You may add a serial number of the packages of the consignment.
    1. Example: a) JJ & Co. b) JJ & Co.
      New York                          New York
      1/100                               2/100
  2. Freight Broker: You choose your freight broker. He will give you information about shipping opportunities and help to book shipping space for your cargo. The freight broker will write down your shipping space requirement on a form known as brokers’ slip and pass it on to the shipping company. The broker will furnish these details
    1. Name of the shipper, quantity, and description of cargo;
    2. Port of shipment and port of destination
  • Name of the ship in which he seeks space;
  1. Bill of Lading: Bill of lading is a very important shipping document and it is negotiable. The bill of lading will show the following particulars
    1. Name of the ship; Flag of Nationality; Shipper’s Name; Order and notify party; Marks and Nos. of packages; Description of goods; Gross Weight; Freight rate;

If Mate’s receipt indicates any remarks (e.g. case broken, Jar leaking etc.) in respect of the goods shipped, then such remarks will also appear in the Bill of lading. In that case, such a bill of lading will be deemed as unclean or Caused Bill of Lading. There will be difficulties in negotiating such a Bill of Lading through banks. If goods are tendered for shipment in good order and condition (or defective are replaced by goods in order before shipment) no remarks will appear on the Mate’s receipt and bill of lading and no difficulty will be experienced in negotiating clean bill of lading through banks

A shipper can get the shipping company stamped original copies of Bill of Lading in Duplicate, Triplicate as many copies of Bill of Lading as he desires. If freight is paid on shipment, the B/L will be stamped “Freight Prepaid”, if freight is payable at the destination, the B/L will be stamped “Freight payable at destination.

  1. Imports:

When you are expecting import cargo, you will be receiving intimation and endorsed a negotiable copy of Bill of lading, Invoice, and Packing list etc. from the Shipper/Bank, regarding the goods shipped to you. You ascertain the arrival date of the ship from the shipping company and two or three weeks before the arrival of the ship, you may hand over the papers to your clearing and forwarding agents, whom you have to appoint. Your clearing and forwarding agent will help you in:

  1. Processing Customs Documents (bill of entry)
  2. Paying Customs duty (imports) on your behalf.
  • Paying the freight if the consignment has been shipped “freight payable at destination”.
  1. Surrendering duly discharged negotiable bill of lading to the shipping company.
  2. Obtaining delivery order form the shipping company.
  3. Clearing your goods from the docks after paying the port charges (cargo dues) and after customs examinations and delivering the goods to you.
  1. Rate of Exchange:

Freight and charges may be paid in dollar or, with the carrier’s consent, in a freely convertible currency other than dollars.